The word “bitumen” is from the Quechua words for “water”. This, in turn, was probably the name of the first human settlement in the region around 6,000 years ago, in what is now northwestern Venezuela. The Quechua were probably descendants of the ancestors of the Zapotec, and so they probably migrated out of North America, probably into Ecuador, before colonizing the rest of the region.
Bitumen is a “solid”: it contains more than just oil. There are also compounds such as hydrocarbons, which comprise the bulk of the bitumen itself. These may be dissolved in water to form hydrocarbons.
What is a dilbit?
This bitumen is produced at the refinery at Petroleos de Venezuela de Venezuela (PDVSA). This refinery produces two types of bitumen: dilbit and solid bitumen.
Dilbit is used in refining and in transportation. The solid bitumen, which is used in transportation is typically processed with a high temperatures. The solid dilbit is more expensive since it requires high temperatures to dissolve into water. While the oil is still under a lot of pressure, it can be pumped underground, where the temperature is much lower.
Dilbit used for transportation is sometimes called “natural gas water pipeline”. Solid dilbit is also transported in containers.
What is a bitumen sour mash?
A bitumen sour mash involves the blending of oil and hydrocarbons in a hot reactor to help produce a heavier oil like bitumen or condensate, which is the solid oil that can be refined. This oil can be used to fuel a refining refinery or to produce fuel gas. However, bitumen sour mash is very expensive (around $5,000 USD) and therefore not the most environmentally friendly option.
What is “bitumen” today?
Bitumen is an oil that contains crude oil as its primary constituent, but may have other components as well. Many of these additional components will be produced separately during the blending process, as is often the case in the production of liquefied natural gas. Bitumen is mostly a natural occurrence and so the use of modern methods (oil recovery from ground) are more effective than the methods used to extract it from the ground.
A bitumen refining plant at Petrocorona de Venezuela (PEP) in Santander, Venezuela, in February 2009. The refinery was developed in the 1980s.
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